swimming in plastic: the worldwide problem of plastic pollution

by:Yucai     2020-01-04
In 1967 film \"graduates\", Dustin Hoffman played a man in his twenties. one-year-
A college graduate named Benjamin Braddock.
To celebrate Benjan\'s graduation, his parents hosted a dinner party and invited several friends to come over.
At the party, a friend of his parents gave Benjamin some wise advice with only one word: plastic.
Looking back at this simple suggestion, it is so prophetic.
Since then, the amount of plastic made and used on Earth has exploded.
You have to go to the most remote corner of the Earth and not touch something made of plastic.
This tough and durable material made of oil has been around for more than a century, and from beverage cups to components of space vehicles, it has been made into a variety of things.
The problem is that it is very tough and durable and not easy to degrade.
The plastic spoon your mother uses to feed you baby food and then throw it away is still somewhere;
Hopefully it\'s recycled into something else, but probably not.
If it is buried in a landfill, it may now have been washed off on some beaches in Indonesia.
We, people on Earth, are swimming in our own plastic garbage.
This must change!
The problem plastic has been around for a long time, and from 1907 Leo Baekeland invented the first synthetic plastic, known as the glue wood, and created the term \"plastic \".
Since then, smart people around the world have developed new and more useful products from high molecular weight organic polymers synthesized in oil.
This thing is almost indestructible;
It can take hundreds or even thousands of years to break down completely.
Now, most of the products we consume are made of plastic.
Think about your drink cups, bottled water, straws, computer boxes, pens, disposable spoons and forks, and the list continues. About 8.
Since the 3 billion s, 1950 tons of plastic have been produced.
To let you know how much plastic is around, typical Ford F-
150 pickup trucks weigh about 5,000 pounds.
Do some math and you will get the equivalent of 3. 6 billion F-
Over the past 70 years, 150 of plastic has been produced.
Because there are about seven.
There are 6 billion people on Mother Earth, each of whom has about a truck of plastic worth.
So, think about the half-value plastic truck parked in your driveway for each family member, and maybe that will give you some insight into the issue.
As only 9% of the plastic is recycled and 12% of the plastic is burned, most of the plastic is still there.
This means that nearly 80% of the plastic produced is produced somewhere.
Plastic is everywhere in the ocean.
It is estimated that by 2050, there will be as much plastic in the ocean as in fish.
When the plastic is poured into the ocean, the effects of wave motion, salt water and UV light begin to break the plastic down into micro plastic, small enough to be eaten by fish.
It is estimated that 70% of fish are exposed to microplastics, which means that this plastic waste is entering the food chain.
Scientists have just begun to study problems related to human intake of plastic.
So far, the results have been negative. No surprise;
Eating plastic is a good thing for human beings. Who should blame?
You will think that the richer western culture in North America and Europe has the greatest responsibility for plastic pollution.
Most of the land
The basic plastic into the ocean comes from fast
Growth in East Asia, waste
The collection system is defective or does not exist.
In October 2017, scientists from the Helmholtz mhoz environmental research center in Germany found that 10 cars in Africa and the rest of Asia emit about 90% of marine plastic.
There is only one Yangtze River in China.
5 million tons of plastic waste flow into the ocean every year.
Simulation of the weight back to F-
150 trucks, more than 600,000 plastic equivalent trucks made of plastic that float into the sea every year from the pollution of the river!
The situation in China may begin to change.
On 2017, China announced that it would stop importing 24 types of waste materials to China.
China has been the world\'s largest importer of waste for decades.
The ban has been hailed by environmental activists as a major victory in global green efforts, saying it will not only clean up China, but also force other countries that export garbage to China to better manage their own garbage.
\"This regulation will set off a shock wave around the world, forcing many countries to get out of sight from our attitude towards waste,\" said Greenpeace East Asia plastics activist Liu Hua . \".
Flowers have sounded the alarm for Beijing\'s every move around the world.
Recently, some innovative solutions have begun to yield results.
Unfortunately, every solution is just a good start.
The big answer to this question does not seem imminent.
Plastic pollution will be with us in the coming years.
Some organizations and governments are starting to take action: Starbucks coffee announced on July 9, 2018 that it will stop using plastic straws in stores by 2020.
Dell computer is starting to produce laptop packages that are recycled from sea beach garbage.
The company estimates that this will keep 16,000 pounds of the plastic out of the ocean.
Costume designer Stella McCartney announced on 2017 that she will use marine plastic in some products instead of woven or recycled polyester.
She worked with Adidas to make sneakers from recycled materials from the ocean.
Dutch entrepreneur Boyan Slat invented a floating barrier system with an underwater screen to extract the plastic and wanted to test it on the big garbage belt in the Pacific Ocean, an ocean off the coast of California, where plastic waste piled up.
Efforts are being made to make plastic producers responsible for the environmental impact of their products through prescribed regulations.
It is estimated that beverage companies alone produce 500 billion disposable plastic bottles per year.
Countries such as Bangladesh, France and Rwanda have banned the use of plastic bags.
Anyone who provides plastic bags in Kenya since 2017 is likely to be sentenced to four years in prison or a fine of up to $40,000.
Fast food giant McDonald\'s plans to recycle all its packaging from recycled or renewable resources by 2025.
The European Commission calls for a ban on all singleuse plastics.
In a recent report issued by the Commission, they claimed that the legislation was more than a ban on plastic products.
It also wants plastic producers to bear the cost of waste management and cleaning, and recommends that EU countries must collect 90% of the single
Through the recycling plan, plastic bottles will be used by 2025.
Rescue technology?
Fortunately, for every problem caused by the plastic revolution and the resulting pollution and other new breakthrough technologies, a new technology can be developed to solve this problem.
Unfortunately, at this point in time, it seems that none of the new technologies are very effective or commercially viable.
There is hope, but as always, more research is needed.
Plastic eating bacteria
A group of scientists from a plastic bottle recycling plant in Osaka, Japan, searched for deposits and found a bacteria that has evolved into consuming the most common plastic made from pet, commonly referred to as PET, used in polyester, disposable bottles, and food containers.
Plastic has long molecular chains called polymers, and most organisms cannot break down.
Laboratory tests showed that the bacteria used two enzymes to break down the polymer before consumption.
In bacterial cells, plastic is further decomposed, and its carbon and energy are used to build more cells.
We hope the bacteria can be applied to solve the serious problems caused by wasted PET materials in nature, said Kohei Oda, one of the researchers at the project.
At present, the research is only in the laboratory stage and is not ready to introduce products suitable for commercial applications on a large scale. Bioplastics.
Plastic can be made of plant substances instead of hydrocarbons. Some plant-
There is already bio-plastic;
Packing peanuts, for example, can be made of starch instead of foam plastic.
Not all plastics made from biological sources are biodegradable because they are of the same chemical properties as oilbased plastics.
In specific cases, products made of bio-plastics can be triggered for biodegradable in the right environment.
Turn plastic into oil
Japanese inventor Akinori Ito invented a machine that converts plastic bags into oil.
1 kg in the process (2. 2 pounds)
One liter of oil can be converted into plastic.
The conversion process takes about 1 kWh of power.
The conversion starts with the heating of the plastic and then enters it into the pressurized oxygenfree oven.
The temperature of the oven reaches 427 °c (800°F)
Convert plastic into liquid.
The machine then transforms the liquid into a gas state in which the liquid is captured and allowed to cool.
The steam condenses during cooling to form a mixture of gasoline, diesel, kerosene and heavy oil.
The resulting crude oil can be used to heat or refine into higher-level petroleum products such as gasoline.
This machine is a bit expensive for ordinary families, about $10,000.
Depending on the price of oil and electricity, the process may become more economically viable and widespread. Recycling.
It\'s a good idea to recycle or convert old plastic waste into new plastic products;
However, reality is not so attractive.
Due to the nature of the plastic itself, the plastic recovery rate is still very low, less than 10%.
Plastic products contain a unique proprietary additive mixture to prevent the recovery of mixed batch products back to the original product.
Unlike glass and aluminum, most plastic recycling is considered \"down\" and they can be recycled to their original consistency
Turn the bike into a lower quality hybridplastic end-product.
As is the case with the recovery of wood, the wood is ultimately a composite particle board.
In addition to a small portion of plastic that is suitable for recycling or burning to produce energy, all plastics end up being garbage or garbage from landfill sites.
In our daily life, we can be part of solving the problem of plastic pollution.
Since it is almost impossible to stop using plastic together, there are a few simple strategies that will help.
Recycling: think about where you handle used water bottles or plastic plates or cups;
Put it in the recycle bin or start recycling around the house.
Some garbage services make it very easy to have only special bins for recyclable items.
The recycling process of plastic is not perfect, but it helps.
Avoid using plastic bags.
Next time you go to the grocery store, the bagging person asks you for paper or plastic to respond by giving them your reusable bag.
They are much cheaper and much stronger than microcomputers.
Thin plastic bags provided by the store.
Avoid items wrapped in plastic as much as possible.
For example, my wife sent me to the store to buy something, one of which was sweet potatoes.
In retrospect, I messed up, I bought potatoes that had been washed, wrapped in plastic, ready to throw in the microwave.
I was supposed to buy some bulk potatoes in the restaurant, they might be cheaper anyway.
I will do better next time, but small things like this can reduce the amount of plastic used on Earth.
Avoid the use of micro plastic products.
Many common products such as toothpaste, cosmetics and clothing have these products.
The small pieces of plastic are too small to filter out from the water supply of the sewage treatment plant.
Once in the water supply system, they will eventually enter the river, reach the ocean, be consumed by marine life, and eventually return to the food chain.
Look for and avoid products that use the word \"beads.
Contact your representative.
Let your local, state, and national legislative representative know that you care about plastic pollution.
We pay them to help us, so let them work.
Conclusion I would be happy to give this article a happy ending and have full confidence that the problem of plastic contamination will quickly and easily disappear.
However, not all stories have a happy ending, and the problem of plastic pollution will not be solved soon.
Forecasts suggest that more plastic products will be produced in the coming decades and then thrown away.
Plastic garbage mountain on land and ocean grows a little higher.
It will take years of debate and legislation at the local, state, national and international levels to develop meaningful laws to curb the growing problems.
Technology doesn\'t seem to help much, as a commercially viable solution won\'t be in sight.
As citizens on Earth, all we can do is work every day to reduce our dependence on plastic products, recycle them, and encourage responsible people to end this global problem that affects each of us.
Mavericks referee Baker
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